Hyperparameter Optimization - Jupyter Notebook

hyperparameter_search.ipynb demonstrates integrating Trains into a Jupyter Notebook which performs automated hyperparameter optimization. This is an example of Trains automation. It creates a Trains HyperParameterOptimizer object, which is a search controller. The search controller's search strategy optimizer is OptimizerBOHB. The example maximizes total accuracy by finding an optimal batch size, base learning rate, and dropout. Trains automatically logs the optimization's top performing experiments.

The experiment whose hyperparameters are optimized is named image_classification_CIFAR10. It is created by running another Trains example, image_classification_CIFAR10.ipynb, which must run before hyperparameter_search.ipynb.

When hyperparameter_search.py runs, it creates an experiment named Hyper-Parameter Optimization which is associated with the Hyper-Parameter Search project.

The optimizer Task, Hyper-Parameter Optimization, and the experiments appear individually in the Trains Web (UI).

Optimizer Task


Scalars for total accuracy and remaining budget by iteration, and a plot of total accuracy by iteration appear in RESULTS > SCALARS. Remaining budget indicates the percentage of total iterations for all jobs left before that total is reached.

These scalars are reported automatically by Trains from HyperParameterOptimizer when it runs.



A plot for the optimization of total accuracy by job appears in RESULTS > SCALARS.

This is also reported automatically by Trains when HyperParameterOptimizer runs.



HyperParameterOptimizer hyperparameters, including the optimizer parameters appear in CONFIGURATIONS > HYPER PARAMETERS.

These hyperparameters are those in the optimizer Task, where the HyperParameterOptimizer object is created.

optimizer = HyperParameterOptimizer(
    base_task_id=TEMPLATE_TASK_ID,  # This is the experiment we want to optimize
    # here we define the hyper-parameters to optimize
        UniformIntegerParameterRange('number_of_epochs', min_value=5, max_value=15, step_size=1),
        UniformIntegerParameterRange('batch_size', min_value=2, max_value=12, step_size=2),
        UniformParameterRange('dropout', min_value=0, max_value=0.5, step_size=0.05),
        UniformParameterRange('base_lr', min_value=0.0005, max_value=0.01, step_size=0.0005),
    # this is the objective metric we want to maximize/minimize
    objective_metric_sign='max',  # maximize or minimize the objective metric
    max_number_of_concurrent_tasks=3,  # number of concurrent experiments
    # setting optimizer - trains supports GridSearch, RandomSearch or OptimizerBOHB
    optimizer_class=OptimizerBOHB,  # can be replaced with OptimizerBOHB
    execution_queue='default',  # queue to schedule the experiments for execution
    optimization_time_limit=30.,  # time limit for each experiment (optional, ignored by OptimizerBOHB)
    pool_period_min=1,  # Check the experiments every x minutes
    # set the maximum number of experiments for the optimization.
    # OptimizerBOHB sets the total number of iteration as total_max_jobs * max_iteration_per_job
    # setting OptimizerBOHB configuration (ignored by other optimizers)
    min_iteration_per_job=15000,  # minimum number of iterations per experiment, till early stopping
    max_iteration_per_job=150000,  # maximum number of iterations per experiment



All console output from Hyper-Parameter Optimization appears in RESULTS tab, LOG sub-tab.


Experiments comparison

Trains automatically logs each job, meaning each experiment that executes with a set of hyperparameters, separately. Each appears as an individual experiment in the Trains Web (UI), where the Task name is image_classification_CIFAR10 and the hyperparameters appended.

For example:

image_classification_CIFAR10: base_lr=0.0075 batch_size=12 dropout=0.05 number_of_epochs=6

You can use Trains Web (UI) experiment comparison to visualize the following:

  • Side by side hyperparameter value comparison
  • Metric comparison by hyperparameter
  • Scalars by specific values and series
  • Plots
  • Debug images

Side by side hyperparameter value comparison

In the experiment comparison window, HYPER PARAMETERS tab, select Values in the list (the right of + Add Experiment), and hyperparameter differences appear with a different background color.


Metric comparison by hyperparameter

Select Parallel Coordinates in the list, click a Performance Metric, and then select the checkboxes of the hyperparameters.


Scalar values comparision

In the SCALARS tab, select Last Values, Min Values, or Max Values. Value differences appear with a different background color.


Scalar series comparision

Select Graph and the scalar series for the jobs appears, where each scalar plot shows the series for all jobs.


Debug samples comparision

In the DEBUG SAMPLES tab, debug images appear.